The processing in a body shop is divided in three specific phases: disassembling and assembling, sheet metal work and painting. To each particular phase usually corresponds a specialised artisan, defined respectively as Assembler, Tinsmith and Painter.
Disassembling and re-assembling (carried out by the assembler)
It includes disassembling, adjusting and re-assembling all the elements of body work, of electrical, mechanical, trim areas which interfere with the replacement or re-shaping of the damaged sheet metal, as well as disassembling and re-assembling stickers and/or particular fittings like electric windows, central locking, etc.
Reshaping of damaged sheet metal (carried out by the tinsmith)
By reshaping the sheet metal we mean restoring it in order to bring it back to its pristine shapes and conditions. From an operational point of view, the re-shaping has to be carried out every time that it is technically feasible unless it is more expensive than its replacement and in the case where the spare part is not available by an acceptable lapse of time or if it is no longer being manufactured.
Painting (carried out by the painter)
Painting entails the performance of the complete cycle by using thermosetting enamels (acrylic or synthetic) including any possible application of PVC protective sealants and waxy products. The criteria of performance of the cycle must be in compliance with the norms set out by the paints manufacturers.

Shading (carried out by the painter)
Shading is a painting technique used in order to avoid that the slight colour variation between the old and the new paint of the car is made visible. In short, it is a gradual chromatic variation carried out by the painter that makes it impossible for the human eye to perceive it. The shading on the same sheet metal that is being processed and/or on the adjacent parts is carried out only if technically necessary.
Finish (carried out by the painter or other)
The painting cycle includes any possible operation of polishing on the painted metal sheet and on adjacent parts as well as the cleaning of the vehicle depending on the type of operation that is carried out. These two elements (polishing and cleaning) are included in what is called finish.
Repair and painting of components in composite material (carried out by the painter).
By repair of components in composite material (bumper, doors, etc.) we mean the restoration of these in order to bring them back to their pristine shapes and conditions. The repair will be carried out every time it is technically feasible, unless it is more expensive than their replacement and in the case where the spare part is not available in an acceptable lapse of time or if it is no longer being manufactured.
NORMS EXTRACTED BY MANUALS OF PAINTS MANUFACTURERS
OPERATING CYCLE OF POLYESTER FILLER
Application time:
3-4 minutes at 20°C
15-20 minutes at 20°C
Final sanding of filler P180 – P220
Final sanding of edges P320 – P400
Use the appropriate protection for the respiratory system
Description
Bi-component polyester filler, particularly indicated to fill up any unevenness on the supports in steel, zinc-plated steel, aluminium and small scratches on plastics.

Preparation of the surface
Clean the surface, removing all traces of contaminants before sanding by using an appropriate detergent. Prewash the surface with warm water and soap, rinse with clean water. Remove the existing paint by sanding till metal sheet is exposed, then finish with P180-P220.

Clean the surface, removing all traces of contaminants before applying the product by using an appropriate detergent.

Suitable supports:
Steel, aluminium, zinc-plated steel
Primer, applied with maximum thickness of 25.4 μm.
Polyester laminated
Plastic surfaces*

Composition
Polyester resins
Hardener: peroxide
Mixing
100 parts
2 parts hardener
Mix accurately until you get an even mass (even colour).
Avoid incorporating air.
Mix the correct amount in weight by using a scale.
Pot-life
Application time: 3-4 minutes at 20°C.
Application
Apply the filler by using a spatula, inclined by 60° from the surface.
Level the edges of the applied filler.
Application temperature between 15°C-35°C

Drying
Ready to be sanded after 15-20 minutes at 20°C.
If oven dried, it can be sanded after 10 minutes at 40°C.
Ready to be sanded after 4 minutes
Use low frequency infrared, at a distance of 50-70 cm.
Temperature must not exceed 90°C.

Sanding
P80 – P120 – P220
use powder indicator during the different sanding phases.
P220 – P320 (P400 for finishing touches).
Sand all edges, removing any trace of roughing-out.
Clean the surface, removing all traces of contaminants before applying the product by using an appropriate detergent.

Cleaning the equipment
Clean the equipment soon after use with washing solvents.
VOC
The limit value of the European guidelines for this type of ready to use products (category: : IIB. b) is 250 g/litre. The VOC of this ready to use product is maximum 130 g/litre.
Storage
Storage time refers to the product if properly closed and stored at 20°C.
Avoid sudden changes in temperature.

OPERATING CYCLE – BASE
Application to be sanded
Airbrush setting: application pressure:
1.5-2.0 mm 1.7-2.2 bar to the injector
HVLP max 0.6-0.7 bar to the cap
2-3 x 1 layer
Between layers: before drying:
4-6 minutes at 20°C 4 – 6 minutes at 20°C
1 ½ hours at 20°C 30 minutes at 60°C
application of 3 layers
Final sanding: P500

Use the appropriate protection for the respiratory system
Application wet onto wet
Airbrush setting: application pressure:
1.3-1.5 mm 1.7-2.2 bar to the injector
HVLP max 0.6-0.7 bar to the cap
1 layer
Between layers: cover by:
15 minutes at 20°C 24 hours at 20°C

Appropriate supports
Existing finish
Steel
Aluminium
Galvanised steel
OEM electrophoresis
Polyester laminates reinforced with fibreglass
Polyester fillers
Sanding/wet onto wet
Colorbuild Plus wet onto wet in combination with Plastic Additive
Directly on steel yes (see note 1)
Directly on aluminium yes (see note 1) X
Directly on galvanised steel yes (see note 1) X
Directly on new plastic parts X yes (see note 2)
Directly on non sandpapered OEM electrophoresis yes (see note 3)
Existing finishes sanded yes (see note 3)

Preparation of the surface
Clean the surface, removing all traces of contaminants before applying the product by using an appropriate detergent.
Prewash the surface with warm water and soap, then rinse with clean water.
Finish by dry sanding with P220 – P320
Applicable directly on stiff parts coated with OEM electrophoresis, accurately cleaned, de-greased and non sanded.
Polyester fillers: finish with P180 – P220
Sanding of edges in finishing touches: P400
Clean the surface, removing all traces of contaminants before applying the product by using an appropriate detergent.
To be sanded
1.5-2.0 mm 1.7-2.2 bar to the injector
HVLP max 0.6-0.7 bar to the cap
Wet onto wet
drop 1.3-1.5 mm 1.7-2.2 bar to the injector
HVLP max 0.6-0.7 bar to the cap
For other thicknesses use the largest nozzle and the lowest application pressure.

To be sanded
Apply a layer to the whole sanded area. Then apply the second and third layer within the previous layer. When you need to paint a whole panel, apply 2 or 3 layers on the whole surface, according to the requested thickness.
Let the surface become completely matt between a layer and the other; this will allow to obtain a deeper thickness. Do no hasten the drying process by blowing air.
The drying time is affected by room temperature, applied layers and airflow.
In order to obtain deeper thickness, we recommend using the largest nozzle and the lowest application pressure.
Wet onto wet
Apply 1 full wet layer on the whole area to be repaired.

Drying for the version to be sanded
1½ hours at 20°C 30 minutes at 60°C
Drying times refer to the recommended application (3 layers) and to the temperature of the object.
Leave to dry for 5 minutes before drying with Infrared.
The panel must never exceed the temperature of 100°C whilst drying.

Drying for the wet onto wet version
Leave to dry for at least 15 minutes at 20°C before applying the finish.
Apply the finish by 24 hours at 20°C.
If you exceed the time limit for the covering, it must be dry sanded with P500 or wet sanded with P1000.
Removal of imperfections in the wet onto wet version.
Slight imperfections (ex. Specks of dust) may be removed by gently dry sanding with P500 or wet sanding with P1000. If the drying time exceeds 24 hours it is necessary to sand.

Final sanding
Finish by sanding with P500
initially polish with P360-P400
stick to a grit difference of maximum 100 when sanding.
Finish by sanding with P1000
initially polish with P600-P800
stick to a grit difference of maximum 200 when sanding.
Clean the surface, removing all traces of contaminants before applying the product by using an appropriate detergent.
Thickness
To sand by layer: 40-45 μm
3 layers: 120-130 μm
Wet onto wet (1 layer): 25-30 μm

Cleaning the equipment
Clean the equipment soon after use with washing solvents.
VOC
2004/42/IIB(c)(540)540

The limit value of the European guidelines for this type of ready to use products (category: : IIB. b) is 540 g/litre. The VOC of this ready to use product is maximum 540 g/litre.
Storage
Storage time refers to the product if properly closed and stored at 20°C.
Avoid sudden changes in temperature.

OPERATING CYCLE – FILLER
Description
Two-component primer-surfacer, rapid dry, designed for finishing touches and panel repair where deep thickness is required.
Application to be sanded.
Airbrush setting: application pressure:

1.8-2.2 mm 1.7-2.2 bar to the injector
HVLP max 0.6-0.7 bar to the cap
1-3 x 1 layer
between layers: before drying:
5-10 minutes at 20°C 5-10 minutes at 20°C
3 hours at 20°C 30 minutes at 60°C
final sanding: P500

Use the appropriate protection devices for the respiratory system

Description
Two-component primer-surfacer, rapid dry, designed for finishing touches and panel repair where deep thickness is required.
Appropriate supports
Existing finishes
Steel
OEM electrophoresis
Polyester laminates reinforced with fibreglass
Polyester fillers
Provides appropriate adhesion when applied directly on steel.

Composition
Acrylic resins
P Hardener: polyisocyanate resin
Preparation of the surface
Clean the surface, removing all traces of contaminants before applying the product by using an appropriate detergent.
Prewash the surface with warm water and soap, then rinse with clean water.
Finish by dry sanding with P220-P320
OEM electrophoresis on stiff parts; finish by dry sanding with P220-P320.
Polyester fillers finish by sanding with P180-P220.
Sanding of edges in the finishing touches: P400

Clean the surface, removing all traces of contaminants before applying the product by using an appropriate detergent.
Airbrush setting/ application surface
Airbrush nozzle application surface
1.8-2.2 mm 1.7-2.2 bar to the injector
HVLP max 0.6-0.7 bar to the cap
In order to obtain deeper thickness, we recommend the use of the largest nozzle and of the lowest application pressure.

Application
Apply a layer to the whole sanded area. Then apply the second and third layer within the previous layer. When you need to paint a whole panel, apply 2 or 3 layers on the whole surface, according to the requested thickness.
Let the surface become completely matt between a layer and the other; this will make it possible to obtain deeper thickness. Do no hasten the drying process by blowing.
The drying time is affected by room temperature, applied layers and airflow.
In order to obtain deeper thickness, we recommend the use of the largest nozzle and of the lowest application pressure.

Thickness
Following the suggested application: 3 layers; 240-300 μm.
Drying for the version to be sanded
3 hours at 20°C 2 hours at 40° 30° at 60°C.

Drying time refers to the suggested application (3 layers) and to the temperature of the object.
Leave to dry for 5 minutes before drying with Infrared.
The panel must never exceed the temperature of 100°C whilst drying.
Final sanding
Finish by sanding with P500
initially polish with P360-P400
stick to a grit difference of maximum 100 when sanding.
Finish by sanding with P1000
initially polish with P600-P800
stick to a grit difference of maximum 200 when sanding.
Clean the surface, removing all traces of contaminants before applying the product by using an appropriate detergent.
Cleaning the equipment
Clean the equipment soon after use with washing solvents.

VOC

The limit value of the European guidelines for this type of ready to use products (category: : IIB. b) is 540 g/litre. The VOC of this ready to use product is maximum 518 g/litre.
Storage
Storage time refers to the product if properly closed and stored at 20°C.
Avoid sudden changes in temperature.
OPERATING CYCLE PLASTIC PRIMER
Description
Rapid-dry mono-component primer, for adhesion on plastic parts.
Airbrush setting: application pressure:
1.2-1.4 mm 1.7-2.2 bar to the injector
HVLP max 0.6-0.7 bar to the cap
1 layer
overcoatable after: overcoatable by:
20 minutes at 20°C 24 hours at 20°C
Use the appropriate protection devices for the respiratory system

Description
Fast-dry mono-component primer, for adhesion on plastic parts.
Appropriate supports
All the plastic parts actually used in the automobile industries, except those in pure PE (polyethylene).
Particularly recommended for those parts in soft polyurethane.

Composition
Polyolefine resins
Preparation of the surface
Prewash the surface with warm water and detergent; then rinse with clean water.
Remove all traces of contaminants from the surface, using M700 o M850.
Non processed plastic parts.
Abrade the whole surface accurately with Scotch Brite.

Plastic parts that have already been painted
Finish by dry sanding with P220-P230
Sanding of edges in finishing touches: P400
Remove all traces of contaminants from the surface, using M700 or M850.

Viscosity
14-16 seconds in DIN 4 cup at 20°C.
Pot-life
Unlimited.
Verify the storage time of the product.

Airbrush setting/application pressure
Airbrush
Nozzle
1.2-1.4 mm
application pressure
1.7-2.2 bar at the injector
HVLP max 0.6-0.7 bar at the cap
Application
Apply a single layer on the non processed plastics.

Overlay time
Leave to dry for at least 20 minutes at 20°C before overlaying
Overlayable by 24 hours at 20°C.

Thickness
According to the recommended application: 1-4 μm

Cleaning the equipment
Clean the equipment soon after use with washing solvents.
Storage
Storage time refers to the product if properly closed and stored at 20°C.
Avoid sudden changes in temperature.

OPERATING CYCLE – MATT BASE
Description
Matt water base providing excellent coating, excellent metal disposition and applicability. When used to reproduce the original colours, either pastel, metallic and pearled, it ensures optimal hues.
Airbrush setting: application pressure:
1.2-1.5 mm 1.7-2.2 bar to the injector
HVLP max 0.6-0.7 bar to the cap
Metallic application: pastel application:
Full layer – intermediate layer – droplet layer
2 x 1 layer
Between layers: before the application of transparency:
Till complete opacification at 25°C 15 minutes at 25°C
Use the appropriate protection devices for the respiratory system

Description
Matt water base providing excellent coating, excellent metal disposition and applicability. When used to reproduce the original colours, both pastel and metallic and pearled, it ensures optimal hue.

Composition
Acrylic resins in aqueous dispersion
Preparation of the surface
Finish by sanding with P500
it is possible to begin the sandpapering with coarser grits: P360-P400
stick to a grit difference of maximum 100 when sanding.
Finish by sanding with P1000
it is possible to begin the sanding with coarser grits: P600-P800
stick to a grit difference of maximum 200 when sanding.

Clean the surface, removing all traces of contaminants before applying the product by using an appropriate detergent.
Caution points
Filtering:
for optimal filtering, we recommend the use of filters for water-based products of the size of 125 μm.
Solvents
Avoid contact between water-based products and any other solvent.
Viscosity
20-30 seconds in DIN 4 cup at 20°C.
Airbrush setting/ application pressure
Airbrush Nozzle Application pressure
1.2-1.5 mm 1.7-2.2 bar to the injector

HVLP max 0.6-0.7 bar to the cap

Pot-life
All pastel and pearly colours: 3 months at 20° C.
Metallic colours without MM777 base: 1 week at 20°C.
metallic colours with MM 777 base: 1 day at 20°C.

Application
Pastel colours
Apply a single layer or more, till colour is completely covered.
*Drying time between layers can be reduced by increasing the airflow or by raising the temperature in the cabin; the surface must become completely matt. Let the surface get back to room temperature.
*Leave to dry for at least 15 minutes (max. 24 hours) at 25°C before applying the transparency.
Metallic / pearly / SEC colours
Apply 1 full layer. Then apply an intermediate layer.
*Drying time between layers can be reduced by increasing the airflow or by raising the temperature in the cabin; the surface must become completely matt. Let the surface get back to room temperature.
When necessary, apply a droplet layer (for a correct metal orientation) reducing the pressure to a 1-1 ½ bar to the injector and pulling the airbrush trigger completely. Widen the distance between the airbrush and the support to about 30 cm.
*Leave to dry for at least 15 minutes (max. 24 hours) at 25°C before applying the transparency.
Finishing touches
Apply light layers with lower pressures till colour is covered.
Between layers, let the previous layer become matt. Shade beyond the edges of the previous layer. If necessary, for metallic colours, apply a final droplet layer (metal orientated) by increasing the distance of the airbrush.

 

The drying time may be reduced by using systems that increase air flow, located at least 1 metre distance from the support.
If the temperature to quicken drying is increased, let the support get back to room temperature before proceeding with the application of another colour or of the transparency.
Thickness
According to the recommended application: pastel, metallic and pearly colours: 12-25 μm.
The total thickness of the dry film should never exceed 30 μm.
Masking
Pastel, metallic and pearly colours may be taped after 20 minutes of drying at 25°C.
increased temperature and airflow improve “tapability”
let the support get back to room temperature before proceeding with the masking.
Removal of specks of dust
Leave to dry for at least 20 minutes at 25°C.
Sand the damaged area with P500.
Remove traces of sanding before proceeding with the application.
Overlaying time
Before the application of transparency:
Minimum 15 minutes at 25°C
Maximum 24 hours at 25°C
If you exceed maximum time for overlaying, it is necessary to abrade and apply an extra layer.

Cleaning the equipment
After use, clean and rinse the airbrush accurately.
Rinse the airbrush before use.

VOC
2004/42/IIb(d)(420)413

The limit value of the European guidelines for this type of ready to use products (category: : IIB. b) is 420 g/litre. The VOC of this ready to use product is maximum 413 g/litre.
Storage
Storage time refers to the product if properly closed and stored at 20°C.
Avoid sudden changes in temperature.

For optimal performance, the unsealed products must be stored at the application temperature
Transport and storage must occur at temperatures between 3°C-35°C.
Freezing of the bases causes problems and lumps that make them unusable.